A comparative microscopical study of three European trephined skulls

Jennifer Wakely, Corinne Duhig


The margins of trephined openings in three European skulls were examined by scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). This method produces a high resolution image of marks made on the bone by the implement used and, therefore, gives insight into the operator's technique. Grooving and scraping methods are identified and described in the three specimens.

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