A Bronze age individual from the Basque Country who survived open cranial trauma

Francisco Etxeberria, Lourdes Herrasti


The skeletal remains of two individuals were found in the Kobazar Cave (Ataun, the Basque Country). This cave is among those identified as belonging to the Bronze Age in the province of Guip├║zcoa. The human remains were discovered in 1978. The skeletons were found in a small gallery in the cave and showed signs of considerable concretion from calcium carbonate deposition. They were restored by using diluted acids until the considerable calcareous crusts which covered the surfaces of the bones were removed. At this stage of restoration we discovered the cranial lesion described below.

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